By some estimates women are twice as likely as men to suffer from depression. Researchers have posited numerous theories for the gender difference: a variance in brain structure, reproductive function, a greater tendency among women to seek help, and societal pressures. Psychiatrist Susan Kornstein (Virginia Commonwealth University) says while the difference in prevalence is well-established, the ways in which the illness manifests itself in men and women is not as well understood. And, she says, doctors are only now beginning to realize that females with depression may need to be treated differently from men.

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