Historians have long held that children of 17 th and 18 th century Europe were thought of as incomplete adults who were not yet worthy of love or compassion. However, historian Michael Galgano (James Madison University) says actually children were understood to be in a different stage of life, and they were celebrated and loved.

Also: Elementary school teachers may want to encourage a noisier classroom this fall. Adam Winsler’s (George Mason University) recent research shows that 5-year-olds perform better on motor tasks when they talk to themselves out loud than when they are silent.

Also: Infants come into the world equipped with an enormous capacity to trust, which is essential to rapid learning. Vikran Jaswal University of Virginia) says part of the challenge of childhood is learning when to question. Through his work with hundreds of young children he is looking for the origins of this struggle.

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